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UOH Admissions Spring 2023

Click on below links for Admissions Spring 2023.

 Admissions announced for BS/BS 5th Semester/M.Sc (Hons)/MS/M.Phil/Ph.D Programs (Admissions Spring 2023).

           

Department of Chemistry

Scheme of Study (BS 4 Years)

BS (4-YEARS) CHEMISTRY: SCHEME OF STUDIES

Course Title: Inorganic Chemistry-I
Course Code: CHEM-111
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about the key introductory concepts of chemical bonding, acid-base chemistry, and properties of p-block elements as well as using this knowledge for qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic compounds during laboratory work.
Course Contents:
Chemical Bonding: Types of chemical bonding, ionic and covalent bonding, localized bond approach, theories of chemical bonding, Valence Bond Theory (VBT), hybridization and resonance, prediction of molecular shapes using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model, Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT) applied to diatomic molecules, delocalized approach to bonding, bonding in electron deficient compounds, hydrogen bonding. Acids and Bases: Brief concepts of chemical equilibrium, acids and bases including soft and hard acids and bases (SHAB), concept of relative strength of acids and bases, significance of pH, pKa, pKb and buffer solutions, theory of indicators, solubility, solubility product, common ion effect and their industrial applications. p-Block Elements: Physical and chemical properties of p-block elements with emphasis on some representative compounds, inter-halogens, pseudo-halogens and polyhalides.
CHEM-111 Lab.
Lab safety and good laboratory practices, knowledge about material safety data sheets (MSD), disposal of chemical waste and first-aid practices, qualitative analysis of salt mixtures, quantitative analysis, acid-base titrations, preparation and standardization of acid and alkali solutions, redox titrations, preparation and standardization of potassium permanganate solution and its use for the determination of purity of commercial potassium oxalate or oxalic acid, preparation and standardization of sodium thiosulfate solution and its use in determination of copper in a given sample, gravimetric analysis, determination of barium in a given sample, determination of chloride in a given solution.
Recommended Books

  1. Xu, R, Pang, W. and Huo, Q. Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry, 1st ed., Elsevier, (2011)
  2. Mendham, J.  Denney, R.C. Barnes J.D.  and Thomas, M.J.K.  Vogel’s Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, (2000)
  3. Cotton, F.A, Wilkinson, G,  Murillo, C.A. and Bochmann, M. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., Wiley-Interscience, (1999)
  4. Huheey, J.E. Keiter, E.A.  and Keiter, R.L. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (1997).
  5. Housecraft, C. and Sharpe, A.G.  Inorganic Chemistry, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (2012)
  6. Rodgers, G.E. Descriptive Inorganic, Coordination, and Solid State Chemistry, 3rd ed., Brooks- Cole, (2012)

Course Title: Organic Chemistry-I
Course Code: CHEM-121
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about basic concepts of organic chemistry, chemistry of hydrocarbons and functional groups and the mechanism of organic reactions. Such information will be useful for qualitative analysis and synthesis of organic compounds.
Course Contents:
Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry: Bonding and hybridization, localized and delocalized bonding, structure and aromaticity, inductive effect, dipole moment, resonance and its rules, hyperconjugation, classification and nomenclature of organic compounds including IUPAC system, types of organic reactions (an overview). Chemistry of Hydrocarbons: Saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons with emphasis on synthesis and free radical, electrophilic addition and electrophilic substitution reactions. Chemistry of Functional Groups: Hydroxyl, ether and amino groups, preparation and properties of alcohols, phenols, ethers, and amines with focus on reaction mechanism and applications, carbonyl compounds, preparations and reaction mechanism of aldehydes and ketones and their applications, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, acidity of carboxylic acids and effect of substituents on their acidity, preparation and reactions of carboxylic acids and their derivatives including esters, amides, acid halides and acid anhydrides.
CHEM-121 Lab.
Qualitative analysis of compounds with different functional groups, synthesis of organic compounds using as a tool for understanding techniques like reflux, distillation, filtration, recrystallization and yield calculation, organic syntheses may include preparation of benzanilide from benzoyl chloride, succinic anhydride from succinic acid, phthalimide from phthalic anhydride, oximes and hydrazones from carbonyl compounds, and an ester from a carboxylic acid and alcohol etc.
Recommended Books:

  1. Robert, T. M., and Robert, N. B., Organic Chemistry, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey, (1992).
  2. John, E. M., Organic Chemistry, 8th ed., Brooks/Cole Publishing Co, USA, (2012).
  3. Younas, M., A Textbook of Organic Chemistry, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, (2006).
  4. Morris, D. G., Stereochemistry (Basic Concepts in Chemistry), Wiley-RSC, (2002).
  5. Mislow, K., Introduction to Stereochemistry, Dover Publications Inc., (2003).
  6. David M., Stereochemistry (Tutorial Chemistry Texts), Royal Society of Chemistry, (2002).
  7. Furniss, B. S, Hannaford, A. J., Smith, P. W. G., Tatchell, A. R., Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th ed., Longman, UK, (1989).
  8. Mohan J., Organic Analytical Chemistry, Theory and Practice, 1st ed. Alpha Science International, Ltd. (2003).
  9. Seiler, J. P., Good Laboratory Practice: The Why and the How, 2nd ed., Springer, (2005)
  10. Brown, W. H., Fotte, C. S., Iverson, B. L. and Anslyn, E. V., Organic Chemistry, 6th ed., Brooks/ Cole Cengage Learning, (2012)
  11. Solomons, T. W. G. and Fryhle, C. B., Organic Chemistry, 10th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2011)

Course Title: Environmental Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-231
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will be able to acquire knowledge and develop understanding about the fundamental principles of environmental chemistry and different types of pollutions. Such information will be useful in studying and solving pollution related issues and experiments in the laboratory.
Course Contents:
Atmospheric Pollution: The atmosphere, composition, temperature and pressure profile, role of free radicals in the atmosphere, temperature inversion and photochemical smog, particulate matter in the atmosphere, industrial pollutants, atmospheric aerosols, acid-rain major sources, mechanism, control measures and effects on buildings and vegetation, global warming, major greenhouse gases, mechanism, control measures and global impact, the stratospheric ozone–the ozone hole, CFCs, ozone protection, biological consequences of ozone depletion. Water Pollution: Water pollution and waste water treatment, municipal, industrial and agricultural sources of pollution, heavy metals contamination of water, eutrophication, detergents and phosphates in water, water quality criteria, water purification: primary, secondary and advanced treatment, removal of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds from polluted water, organic matter in water and its decomposition. Land pollution: Soil and mineral resources, general principles of metal extraction, heavy metals contamination of soil, toxicity of heavy metals, bioaccumulation of heavy metals, organic matter in soil, macro and micro-nutrients in soil, ion exchange in soil, soil pH and nutrients availability. Green Chemistry: Atom economy, integrated pest management control (IPMC), ionic liquids, super critical extraction technology, green synthesis, recycling, carbon dioxide sequestering, water based paints.
Recommended Books:

  • Baird, C. and Cann, M., Environmental Chemistry, 5th ed., W. H. Freeman & Company, (2012)
  • Dara, S. S. and Mihsra, D. D., A Text Book of Environmental Chemistry and Pollution Control, 9th ed., S. Chand & Co. Ltd., (2004)
  • Singhi, R. and Singh, V., Green Chemistry for Environmental Remediation, John-Willey & Sons, Inc., (2011).
  • Holloway, A. M. and Wayne, R. P., Atmospheric Chemistry, 1st ed., Royal Society of Chemistry, (2010).
  • Vaclavikova, M., Vitale, K., Gallios, G. P. and Ivanicova, L. Water Treatment Technologies for Removal of High Toxicity Pollutants, Springerlink, UK, ( 2010).
  • Manahan, S. E., Environmental Chemistry, 9th ed., CRC press, Taylor & Francis group, USA, (2009).
  • Girard, J. E., Principles of Environmental Chemistry, 2nd ed., Jones and Bartlett publishers, (2010).
  • Harrison, R. M., Monks, P., Farmer, J. G., Graham, M. C., Mora, S. J., Pulford, I. and Hulsal, C., Principles of Environmental Chemistry, 1st ed., Royal Society of Chemistry, (2007).
  • Matalack, A., Introduction to Green Chemistry, 2nd ed., CRC press, Taylor & Francis group, USA, (2010).

Course Title: Physical Chemistry-I
Course Code: CHEM-232
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge to enable themselves to understand the fundamental principles and laws of thermodynamics and chemical equilibria and to investigate the physical properties of ideal/non-ideal binary solutions. Students will also be able to study the rates of reactions and perform related calculations.
Course Contents:
Chemical Thermodynamics: Equation of states, ideal and real gases, the virial equation and the van der Waals equation for real gases, critical phenomena and critical constants, four laws of thermodynamics and their applications, thermochemistry, calorimetry, heat capacities and their dependence on temperature, pressure and volume, reversible and non-reversible processes, spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, relations of entropy and Gibbs free energy with equilibrium constant, Gibbs Helmholtz equation, fugacity and activity.
Chemical Equilibrium: General equilibrium expressions, reaction quotients, examples of equilibrium reactions in solid, liquid and gas phases, extent of reactions and equilibrium constants, Gibbs energies of formation and calculations of equilibrium constants, effect of temperature and pressure on the equilibrium constants/compositions, van’t Hoff equation, Le-Chatelier’s principle.
Solution Chemistry: Physical properties of liquids, surface tension, viscosity, refractive index, dipole moment etc. and their applications, brief account of interactions among the molecules in liquids, ideal and non-ideal solutions, Raoult’s law and its applications, lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, vapor pressure of non-ideal solutions and Henry’s law, abnormal colligative properties, degrees of association and dissociation of solutes, osmotic pressure and its measurement, fractional distillation and concept of azeotropic mixtures. Chemical Kinetics: The rates of reactions, zero, first, second and third order reactions with same and different initial concentrations, half-lives of reactions, experimental techniques for rate determination and methods for determination of order of reaction (integration, half-life, initial rate, and graphical methods), Arrhenius equation.
CHEM-232 Lab.
Determination of viscosity and refractive index of liquids.
Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions viscometrically.
Determination of refractive index and molar refractivity.
Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions by refractive index measurements.
Determination of molecular weight of a compound by elevation of boiling point (ebullioscopic method).
Determination of molecular weight of a compound by lowering of freezing point (cryoscopic method).
Determination of heat of solution by solubility method.
Determination of heat of neutralization of an acid with a base.
Kinetic study of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate.
Determination of partition coefficient of a substance between two immiscible liquids.
Recommended Books

  1. McQuarrie, D. A. and Simon, J. D., Physical Chemistry – A Molecular Approach,1st ed., University Science Books,(1997).
  2.  Atkins,P. and Paula,J.D., Atkin’s Physical Chemistry, 9th ed., Oxford  University Press, (2010).
  3. Glasstone, S., Textbook of Physical Chemistry, Macmillan London (1960).J
  4. James, A. M., Prichard, F. E., Practical Physical Chemistry, 3rd ed., Longman Group Limited, New York, (1974).
  5. Chaudhary, S. U., Ilmi Textbook of Physical Chemistry, 2nd ed., Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore, (2013).

Course Title: Analytical Chemistry-I
Course Code: CHEM-241
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about sampling and their handling and preparation and results calculation and data reporting. In addition they will learn and develop understanding about the classical techniques of analytical chemistry and quality control and quality assurance
Course Contents:
Chemometrics: Sampling, significant figures, stoichiometric calculations, measurement errors, analysis of variance (ANOVA), arithmetic mean, median, mode, standard deviation/relative standard deviation, confidence limits, Gaussian distribution, least square method, tests for significance, outliers
Quality Control and Quality Assurance: Definitions, seven tools for quality control, the concept of quality assurance, quality assurance techniques, validations based on design qualification (DQ), installation qualification (IQ), operational qualification (OQ) and performance qualification (PQ), calibrations, monitoring and quality reviews, periodical trainings, six sigma concept, ISO standards.
Classical Analytical Methods: Acid-base, complexometric and redox titrations, gravimetric analysis.
CHEM-241 Lab.
Calibration of volumetric glassware, electronic and analytical equipment, statistical evaluation of analytical data including linear regression analysis, constructing a calibration curve from a given analytical data using spread sheet software, determination of hardness of water using EDTA, determination of chloride in tap water sample, estimation of copper, arsenic, hydrogen peroxide and vitamin C using iodometry, gravimetric analysis, determination of barium in barium nitrate, determination of nickel in a given steel sample, determination of bicarbonates in a clinical sample using back-titration, determination of cation in a mixture by complexometric titration, studying the effect of common ions on solubility of sparingly soluble salts (e. g. AgCl / PbSO4).

 

Recommended Books

  1. Skoog, D. A., West, P. M., Holler, F. J., Crouch, S. R., Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 9th ed., Brooks Cole Publishing Company, (2013). 21
  2. Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry. 6th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, NewYork, (2006).
  3.  Harris, D. C., Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 8th ed., W. H. Freeman and Company, New York,USA, (2011).
  4. Mitra A., Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement, 3rd ed., John- Wiley & Sons, (2008).

Course Title: Applied Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-242
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: The objectives of the course are to educate the students about the fundamentals of chemical industry, raw materials, manufacturing and industrial processes.
Course Contents:
Fundamentals of Chemical Industry: Basic principles and parameters for industrial plant unit operations and unit processes. Chemical Industries: Raw materials, flow sheet diagrams and unit operations and unit processes of sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid, caustic soda and washing soda, cement industry, petroleum, textile, polymer and fuel industries, applications of these industries.
Water Treatment, Steam Production and Scale Removal: Sources of water hardness, water treatment and conditioning for municipal and industrial purposes, steam production and its utilization for power and energy generation, boiler water treatment, chemistry involved in the formation of scale and its prevention. Distillation: Vapor liquid equilibrium, methods of getting equilibrium data for binary systems, construction of equilibrium diagram, designing of distillation column, reflux ratio and its importance.
Composite Materials: Introduction to composite material, classification of composite on the basis of reinforcement (Particle–Reinforced composite, Fibre–Reinforced composite, structural composites) and classification of composites on the basis of matrix phase (Polymer–Matrix composite, Metal–Matrix composite, Ceramics–Matrix composite, Carbon-carbon composite, Hybrid-composite, Laminar composite, Sandwich panels), synthesis, properties and applications of composite materials.
Recommended Books:

  1. Kent, J. A., Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry, 10th ed., Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, (2003).
  2. Vermani, O. P. and Narula, A. K., Applied Chemistry; Theory and Practice, New Age International Pvt. Ltd. Publishers, (2008).
  3. Hede, P. D., Bier. S.P., Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Ventus publishing app., (2007).
  4. Sharma, J., Ndi., Applied Industrial Chemistry, Arise publishers & Distributors, (2012).
  5. Heaton, A., An introduction to Industrial Chemistry, 3rd ed., Chapman & Hall, (1996).

 

Course Title: Polymer Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-243
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: The objectives of this course are to provide the students with fundamental principles of
polymers, classification, preparation, structure and properties. Provides students with an opportunity to identify different types of polymers in our surrounding. Introduces students to the practical application of polymers.
Course Contents:
Fundamental concepts: types of polymers, classification. Mechanism and kinetics: Step growth, free radical addition polymerization, ionic polymerization, Ziegler-Natta polymerization. Stereochemistry: Definition and examples of Isotactic, atactic, syndiotactic polymers and their stereoregulation. Molecular weight determination: Different methods used to determine the absolute and relative molecular weights of polymers. Structure-property relationship. Reactions of synthetic polymers. Polymer degradation and stability: Special emphasis on thermal and photo-degradation.
Recommended Books:

  1. Sperling, L. H. Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, 4th ed., WileyInterscience, New York, USA, (2006).
  2. Boyd, R. H. and Phillips, P. J., The Science of Polymer Molecules, Cambridge, UK, (1993).
  3. Odian, G., Principles of Polymerization, 4th ed., Wiley Interscience, (2004).
  4. Carraher Jr, C. E., Carraher’s, Polymer Chemistry, 8th ed., CRC Press, Inc., (2010).
  5. Ravve, A., Principles of Polymer Chemistry, 3rd ed., Springer, (2012).
  6. Stevens, M. P., Polymer Chemistry: An Introduction, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, (1998).
  7. Allcock, H., Lampe, F. and Mark, J., Contemporary Polymer Chemistry, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, (2003).

Course Title: Inorganic Chemistry-II
Course Code: CHEM-351
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about the physical and chemical properties of d- & f- block elements on the basis of their electronic configurations and will be able to work out structures of coordination compounds through development of understanding of VBT, CFT and MOT
Course Contents:
Chemistry of d-block Elements and Coordination Complexes: Background of coordination chemistry, nomenclature and structure of coordination complexes with coordination number 2-6, chelates and chelate effect, theories of coordination complexes, Werner's theory, valence bond theory (VBT), crystal field theory (CFT) and molecular orbital theory (MOT), Jahn-Teller theorem, magnetic properties, spectral properties, isomerism, stereochemistry, and stability constants of coordination complexes.
Chemistry of f-block Elements: i. Lanthanides: General characteristics, occurrence, extraction and general principles of separation, electronic structure and position in the periodic table, lanthanides contraction, oxidation states, spectral and magnetic properties and uses. ii. Actinides: General characteristics, electronic structure, oxidation state and position in the periodic table, half-life and decay law.
CHEM-351 Lab.
Preparation of following inorganic complexes;
Tetraamminecopper (II) sulphate; Potassium trioxalatochromate (III);
Potassium trioxalatoaluminate (III); cis-Potassium dioxalatodiaquachromate (III).
Determination of zinc and cadmium by complexometric titration
Chromatographic separation of transition metals;
Separation of Ni2+ & Co2+ ions in a mixture by paper chromatography.
Separation of Ni2+ & Cu2+ ions in a mixture by paper chromatography.
Separation of Cu2+ & Fe2+ ions in a mixture by paper chromatography.
Spectrophotometric determination of iron, manganese and nickel.
Recommended Books:

  1. Cotton, F. A., Wilkinson, G., Murillo, C. A. and Bochmann, M., Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., Wiley-Interscience, (1999).
  2. Housecraft, C. and Sharpe, A. G., Inorganic Chemistry, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (2012).
  3. Lee, J. D., Concise Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Blackwell Science Ltd., (1996).
  4. Atkins, P. and Jones, L., Chemicals Principles, 5th ed., W. H. Freeman & Company, (2010).
  5. Huheey, J. E., Kieter, E. A. and Kieter, R. L., Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (1997).

Course Title: Organic Chemistry-II
Course Code: CHEM-352
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will gain knowledge about the stereochemical behavior of organic molecules and acquire an ability to propose mechanism of simple reactions.
Course Contents:
Stereochemistry: Types of stereoisomers, RS and EZ notation, optical activity, stereoselectivity and stereospecificity, conformational analysis.
Organic Reactions and Mechanism: Detailed mechanism of aliphatic reactions including addition, substitution, and elimination reactions, concept of energy profile, transition state and intermediate.
CHEM-352 Lab.
Experiments using polarimeter such as to determine optical activity of a sugar solution and to determine sugar concentration by polarimeter, isomerization of maleic acid.
Experiments involving aliphatic addition, elimination and substitution reactions, e.g., synthesis of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol, addition reaction to cyclohexene etc. Synthesis of a chalcone explaining the concept of condensation and dehydration, N-Alkylation of phthalimide, etc.

Recommended Books:

  1. Robert, T. M., and Robert, N. B., Organic Chemistry, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey, (1992).
  2. John, E. M., Organic Chemistry, 8th ed., Brooks/Cole Publishing Co, USA, (2012).
  3. Younas, M., A Textbook of Organic Chemistry, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, (2006).
  4. Morris, D. G., Stereochemistry (Basic Concepts in Chemistry), Wiley-RSC, (2002).
  5. Mislow, K., Introduction to Stereochemistry, Dover Publications Inc., (2003).
  6. David M., Stereochemistry (Tutorial Chemistry Texts), Royal Society of Chemistry, (2002).
  7. Furniss, B. S, Hannaford, A. J., Smith, P. W. G., Tatchell, A. R., Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th ed., Longman, UK, (1989).
  8. Mohan J., Organic Analytical Chemistry, Theory and Practice, 1st ed. Alpha Science International, Ltd. (2003).
  9. Seiler, J. P., Good Laboratory Practice: The Why and the How, 2nd ed., Springer, (2005).
  10. Brown, W. H., Fotte, C. S., Iverson, B. L. and Anslyn, E. V., Organic Chemistry, 6th ed., Brooks/ Cole Cengage Learning, (2012).
  11. Solomons, T. W. G. and Fryhle, C. B., Organic Chemistry, 10th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2011).

Course Title: Physical Chemistry-II
Course Code: CHEM-353
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will be able to understand and acquire knowledge about the principles and theoretical background of quantum chemistry, kinetics theory of gases and phase equilibrium. The knowledge gained thus can be applied to study various aspects of quantum mechanics, gas kinetic behavior and thermodynamics and phase equilibrium
Course Contents:
Quantum Chemistry: Black body radiation, photoelectric effect, line spectra of elements, Bohr atomic model, wave and particle nature of matter, de Broglie’s equation, Young’s double slit experiment, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, wave functions and Born interpretation of wave functions, probability density, eigen functions and eigenvalues, Hamiltonian operator, Schrödinger wave equation, wave functions for hydrogen-like atomic orbitals, radial distribution functions, shielding and penetration, effective nuclear charge, orbital energies, periodic trends in the properties of the elements in the periodic table.
Kinetic Theory of Gases: Probability density for molecular speeds of gas molecules, Maxwell distribution of molecular speeds, average speeds, pressure of an ideal gas, calculation of molecular speeds, binary collisions, effusion and mean free paths, Maxwell-Boltzmann’s law of energy distribution, method for the determination of the Avogadro’s number (NA), statistical probability and entropy.
Phase Equilibrium: Gibbs phase rule, phase diagrams of one component and two component systems, Gibbs energy and the phase diagram of a substance, location of phase boundaries, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, vapor-liquid equilibrium of binary liquid mixtures, binary phase diagrams and lever rule.

CHEM-353 Lab.
Equilibrium constant of the KI + I2 = KI3 reaction. Kinetics of saponification of ethyl acetate.
Acid catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose.
Study of the adsorption isotherms of acetic acid-charcoal system.
Study of the charge transfer complex formation between iodine and benzene.
Determination of activation energy for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate.
Determination of partial molar volumes. Characterization of the given compound by UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Recommended Books:

  1. Silbey, R. J., Alberty, R. A., and Bawendi, M. G., Physical Chemistry, 4thed., Jojn-Wiley & Sons, (2005).
  2. Atkins, P. and Paula, J. D., Atkin’s Physical Chemistry, 9th ed., Oxford University Press, (2010).
  3. Moore. W. J., Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., Longman Publisher (1972).
  4. Helpern, A. M., Experimental Physical Chemistry: A Laboratory Textbook 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, (1997).
  5. Garland, C. W., Nibler, J. W. and Shoemaker, D., P., Experiments in Physical Chemistry, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill, (2003).

Course Title: Analytical Chemistry-II
Course Code: CHEM-354
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: The main objectives of this course are to introduce the students to the basics principles, instrumental aspects and applications of separation and spectrophotometric analytical methods
Course Contents:
Separation Methods: Principle of solvent extraction, solvent extraction of metals, analytical separations, multiple batch extraction, counter current distribution, solid-phase extraction, solvent extraction by flow injection method, principles of chromatography, classification of chromatographic techniques, overview of paper, thin layer, column, ion exchange chromatography and electrophoresis.
Analytical Spectrophotometry: Properties of light and its interaction with matter, relation between frequency, velocity and wave number, Lambert-Beer’s law and its limitations, single beam and double beam spectrophotometers, lamps and lasers as sources of light, monochromators, detectors, photomultiplier tube, photodiode array, charged coupled device, FT-IR spectroscopy, fourier analysis, interferometry, noise and its control.
CHEM-354 Lab.
Separation of phenol from given organic mixture using solvent extraction.
Separation of given mixture of cations using paper chromatography.
Analysis of the composition of a mixture of nitro anilines by TLC.
Separation of sugars using paper chromatography.
Separation of amino acids using paper/thin layer chromatography.
Deionization and softening of water using ion exchange chromatography.
Determination of λmax of KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7 solutions and verification of Beer-Lambert’s law.
Determination of stoichiometry of a metal complex by visible spectrometry.
Determination of aspirin and caffeine in a proprietary analgesic by double beam UV-Vis. spectrometer.
Quantification of iron in a given sample by using single beam spectrophotometer.
A study of characteristics infrared absorption frequencies.
Recommended Books:

  1. Skoog, D. A., West, P. M., Holler, F. J., Crouch, S. R., Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 9th ed., Brooks Cole Publishing Company, (2013).
  2.  Harris, D. C., Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 8th ed., W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA, (2011).
  3. Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry, 6th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, (2006).
  4. Pavia, D. L., Lampman, G. M., Kriz, G. S. and Vyvyan, J. A., Introduction to spectroscopy, 4th ed., Cengage Learning, (2008).
  5. Deinstrop, E. H., Applied Thin Layer Chromatography, 2nd ed., Wiley-VCH, (2006). (2006).
  6. Kellener. R, Mermet. J. M., Otto, M., Valcarcel, M., Widmer, H.M., Analytical Chemistry: A Modern Approach to Analytical Science, Wiley. VCH, (2004).

Course Title: Organic Spectroscopy
Course Code: CHEM-355
Credit Hours: 3(3-0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire an adequate knowledge about fundamental and instrumental aspects of different spectroscopic techniques and will be able to perform structural elucidation of organic compounds using spectral data.
Course Contents:
UV-Visible: Basic concepts, electronic transitions, Lambert-Beer’s law, factors influencing the lambda max (λmax) values, Woodward rules for calculation of wavelength values.
IR Spectroscopy: Basic concepts, absorption mechanisms, functional group determination and factors affecting the absorption frequencies.
 1H- and 13C-NMR Spectroscopy: Chemical shift, factors affecting chemical shift, spin relaxation, spin-spin coupling, coupling constants, nuclear Overhauser effect, 2-D NMR, COSY and HETCOR spectroscopy.
Mass Spectrometry: Basic concepts; mass spectrometers, ionization techniques, different fragmentation patterns and structure elucidation, combined usage of IR, UV, NMR and Mass spectrometric data for structure elucidation of organic compounds having medium complexity.
Recommended Books:

  1. Mohan, J., Organic Analytical Chemistry: Theory and Practice, 1st ed., Alpha Science Int. Ltd., (2003).
  2. Kalsi, P. S., Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds, 6th ed., New Age International, New Delhi, India, (2007).
  3. Yadav, L. D. S., Organic Spectroscopy, Springer, UK, (2005).
  4. Kemp, W., Organic Spectroscopy, 3rd ed., W. H. Freeman & Company, New York, USA, (1991).
  5. Younas, M., Organic Spectroscopy, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Urdu Bazar Lahore, Pakistan, (2006).
  6. Hollas, J. M., Modern Spectroscopy, 4th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2004).
  7. Pavia, D. L., Lampman, G. M., Kriz, G. S. and Vyvyan, J. R., Introduction to Spectroscopy, 4th ed., Brooks/ Cole Cengage Learning, (2009).
  8. Silverstein, R. M., Webster, F. X. and Kiemle, D., Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 7th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2005).
  9. Williams, D. H. and Flemming, I., Spectroscopic Methods in Organic Chemistry, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Higher Education, (2008).

Course Title: Analytical Techniques
Course Code: CHEM-356
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives Students will acquire knowledge about different analytical techniques with special emphasis on the theoretical, instrumental and applications. 
Course Contents: UV-Visible and Emission Spectroscopy, Foriour Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Chromatographic Techniques, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GS-MS), Laser Light Scattering (LLS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis.
Recommended Books:

  • Skoog, D. A., West, P. M., Holler, F. J., Crouch, S. R., Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 9th ed., Brooks Cole Publishing Company, (2013).
  •  Harris, D. C., Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 8th ed., W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA, (2011).
  • Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry, 6th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, (2006).
  • Pavia, D. L., Lampman, G. M., Kriz, G. S. and Vyvyan, J. A., Introduction to spectroscopy, 4th ed., Cengage Learning, (2008).
  • Deinstrop, E. H., Applied Thin Layer Chromatography, 2nd ed., Wiley-VCH, (2006). (2006).
  • Kellener. R, Mermet. J. M., Otto, M., Valcarcel, M., Widmer, H.M., Analytical Chemistry: A Modern Approach to Analytical Science, Wiley. VCH, (2004).

Course Title: Inorganic Chemistry-III
Course Code: Chem-361
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about various types of inorganic materials, their structure, synthesis, characterization and applications in various fields
Course Contents: Introduction to inorganic materials, crystalline and amorphous states, bonding in solids, non-stoichiometric compounds, binary solid solutions, mechanical, electrical, magnetic, dielectric, optical, and chemical (corrosion) properties of advanced materials, synthesis (e.g., sol-gel, hydrothermal techniques, etc.) and design of inorganic materials and characterization, doping and purification of silicone, chemical vapor deposition and sputtering, introduction to nano materials.
CHEM-361 Lab.
Estimation of anions in mixtures: chloride-phosphate, chloride-nitrate, oxalate-chloride,
sulphate-phosphate, bromide-nitrate, borate-acetate, iodide-nitrate. Iodometric titration with potassium iodate.
Gravimetric estimation of oxalate. Precipitation titrations:
Determination of strength of NaCl given solution by AgNO3 using fluorescein as indicator.
Determination of % age purity of KBr using fluorescein as indicator.
Determination of % composition of mixture of KI & KNO3 using Eosin as indicator.
Spectrophotometric determination of cerium. Separation of heavy metals using solvent extraction technique.
Recommended Books

  1. Cotton, F. A., Wilkinson, G., Murillo, C. A. and Bochmann, M., Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., Wiley-Interscience, (1999).
  2.  Huheey, J. E., Keiter, E. A. and Keiter, R. L., Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (1997).
  3. Smart L. E., Moore E. A., Solid State Chemistry: An Introduction, 4th ed., CRC Press, (2012).
  4. Müller, U., Inorganic Structural Chemistry, 2nd ed., John-Wiley & Sons,(2006).
  5. Schwarzenbach D., Crystallography, 1st ed., John-Wiley & Sons, (1996).

Course Title: Organic Chemistry-III
Course Code: CHEM-362
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge and understanding about aromatic substitution reactions and oxidation and reduction as well as pericyclic reactions
Course Contents:
Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Mechanisms of aromatic reactions including electrophilic and nucleophilic substitutions, effect of substituents on orientation and reactivity.
Oxidation-reductions Reactions: Common oxidizing and reducing reagents, reactions involving elimination of H, cleavage of C-C bond, replacement of hydrogen by oxygen, and addition of oxygen to substrates, reaction involving replacement of oxygen by hydrogen, removal of oxygen from the substrates and reduction with cleavage.
Pericyclic Reactions: Introduction to pericyclic reactions, frontier orbital theory, mechanisms of electrocyclic, cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions.
CHEM-362 Lab.
Experiments involving aromatic substitution, oxidation/reduction reactions and pericyclic reactions, nitration of nitrobenzene to meta-dinitrobenzene, reduction of meta-dinitrobenzene to meta-nitroaniline, sulfonation of aniline, oxidation of benzaldehyde, oxidation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone. Preparation of benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol from benzaldehyde using Cannizzaro’s reaction.
Recommended Books:

  1. Pavia, D. L., Kriz, G. S., Lampman, G. M. and Engel, R. G., A Microscale Approach to Organic Laboratory Techniques, 5th ed., Brooks/Cole Laboratory Series, Cengage Learning, (2013).
  2. Mohan, J., Organic Analytical Chemistry: Theory and Practice,1st ed. Alpha Science Int. Ltd.New Delhi, India, (2003).
  3. Tse-Lok, H., Symmetry: A Basis for Synthesis Design, John-Willey & Sons, Inc., New York, (1995).
  4. Mayo, D. W., Pike, R. M. and Forbes, D. C., Microscale Organic Laboratory with Multistep and Multiscale Syntheses, 5th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2011).
  5. Gilbert, J. C. and Martin, S. F., Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach, 5th ed., Brooks/ Cole Cengage Learning, (2010).
  6. Solomons, T. W. G. and Fryhle, C. B., Organic Chemistry, 10th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2011).
  7. Carey, F. A. and Giuliano, R. M., Organic Chemistry, 9th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, (2013).
  8. Bruice, P. Y., Organic Chemistry, 7th ed., Perason Education, Ltd., (2013).
  9. Smith, M. B., March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure, 7th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2013).
  10. Ansari, F. L., Qureshi, R. and Qureshi, M. L., Electrocyclic Reactions: From Fundamentals to Research, Wiley-VCH, Germany, (1999).
  11. Kürti, L. and Czakó. B., Strategic Applications of Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis: Background and Detailed Mechanisms, Elsevier Inc., (2005).

Course Title: Physical Chemistry-III
Course Code: CHEM-363
Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge and understanding about the theoretical and instrumental as well as application related aspects of conductometric, and electrochemical techniques and surface chemistry. They will also acquire information regarding nuclear binding energy, nuclear instabilities and decay mechanisms as well as the fission and fusion processes.
Course Contents:
Conductometry: Ions in solution, measurement of conductance and Kohlrausch’s law, mobility of ions and transport number, conductometric titrations, Debye-Hückel theory and activity coefficient, determination of activities, application of conductance measurement.
Electrochemistry: Redox reactions, spontaneous reactions, electrochemical cells, standard electrode potentials, liquid junction potential, electrochemical series, Nernst’s equation, thermodynamic of redox reactions, measurement of pH and pKa, dynamic electrochemistry, Latimer Diagram, Frost Diagram, electrolytic cells, potentiometry, reference and indicator electrodes, voltammetry, fuel cells, corrosion and its prevention, fuel cell and hydrogen economy.
Surface Chemistry: Interfaces, Gibbs surface excess, curved surfaces, capillary action, adsorption and adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, catalysis, colloids, emulsion and their industrial applications.
Nuclear Chemistry: Atomic nucleus, nuclides, nuclear stability, modes of decay, nuclear energetics, nuclear models (shell + liquid drop model), fusion and fission, nonspontaneous nuclear processes, nuclear reactors, beta decay systematic.
CHEM-363 Lab.
Spectroscopic determination of Cu percentage in the given sample.
Conductometric determination of Cu (II)- EDTA mole ratio in the complex.
To determine the effectiveness of an extraction of I2 solution by using solvent extraction method.
Determination of molecular weight of a polymer by viscosity method.
Determination of percentage composition of KMnO4/ K2Cr2O7 in a given solution by spectrophotometry.
Evaluation of pKa value of an indicator by spectrometric method.
Conductometric determination of hydrolysis constant (Kh) of conjugate base of a weak acid.
Recommended Books

  1. Silbey, R. J., Alberty, R. A. and Bawendi, M. G., Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, (2005).
  2. Vertes, A., Nagy, S. and Klencsar, Z., Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 1: Basics of Nuclear Science, 1st ed., Springer, (2003).
  3. Atkins, P. and Paula, J. D., Atkin’s Physical Chemistry, 9th  ed., Oxford University Press, (2010).
  4. Somorjai, G. A. and Li, Y., Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, 2nd ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2010).
  5. Laidler. K. J., Chemical Kinetics, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, (1987).
  6. James, A. M., Prichard, F. E., Practical Physical Chemistry, 3rd ed., Longman Group Limited, New York, (1974).

Course Title: Nanomaterials
Course Code: CHEM-364
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will be able to know about the several synthesis methods for preparation and fabrication of nanomaterials, their crystal structure, reactivity, and electrical properties their future applications in industry. They will learn the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures (nanotubes, nanorods, nanowires), thin films, nanoporous materials, and nanostructured bulk materials, and also could describe how different lithography methods can be used for making nanostructures.
Course Contents:
Nanomaterials: Classification; structure and bonding; size dependent properties of matter; arrangements in 1D, 2D and 3D. Specific heats and melting points of nano-crystalline materials.
Semiconductor nanocrystals: Spinels; quantum dots. Alloy semiconductors and their synthesis. Metal nanoparticles, double layers. Nanoparticle stability; charge transfer. Optical properties: Light absorption by colloids; dielectric response; size effects, electron transfer; temperature effects. Nanotechnology: Synthesis techniques, applications.
Recommended Books:

  1. Bimerg, D., Grundmann, M., and Ledentsov, N.N., Quantum Dot Heterostructures, John Wiley (1999).
  2. Poole,C.P., Owens,F.J., Introduction to Nanotechnology, John Wiley &Sons (2003)
  3. Jain, K.P., Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Narosa (1997).
  4. Fendler, J.H., Nano particles and Nano-structured Films, John Wiley &Sons (1998).
  5. Timp, G., Nanotechnology, Springer-Verlag (1999).

Course Title: Research Methodology & Literature Review
Course Code: CHEM-365
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will be able to demonstrate knowledge of research processes (reading, evaluating, and developing); perform literature reviews using print and online databases; identify, explain, compare, and prepare the key elements of a research proposal/report.
Course Contents: Importance of research in higher education, identification of a research topic; formulation of research questions; undertaking a literature study; collection and analysis of relevant data and developing a written sustained argument linking theory and evidence. A thorough literature review related to research project/current topic of interest be carried out and to submit the assigned report at the end of the semester. The written report should take the form of a review article for an established scientific journal. The report should include the importance of the topic. Give a concise account of the ideas, identifying the major questions that surround the field of study and show how they emerge, concluding with recent advances in the field and how these were achieved.
Recommended Books:

  1. Tuckman, B. W. & Harper, B. E. Conducting educational research, 6th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, (2012).
  2. Chakraborty, T. & Ledwani. L. Research Methodology in Chemical Sciences, 1st ed. CRC Press (2016).

Course Title: Reactive Intermediates
Course Code: CHEM-461
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge regarding the rearrangement reactions and their types including some name reactions, and different intermediates involved in organic reactions. Students are expected to learn the underlying concepts and synthetic applications

 

Course Contents:
Reactive Intermediates: Carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, nitrenes, and arynes, their generation, stability, reactions and synthetic applications. Chemistry of enolates and enols: Acidity of carbonyl compounds, enolization of carbonyl compounds, α-halogenation of carbonyl compounds; aldol-addition and aldol condensation, condensation reactions involving ester enolate ions, alkylation of ester enolate ions.
Rearrangement Reactions: Types of rearrangements, general mechanisms of nucleophilic, free radical and electrophilic rearrangements, hydrogen and/or carbon migration to electron-deficient carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, carbon migration to electron rich carbon, aromatic rearrangements, inter- and intra-molecular carbon migration from oxygen to carbon.
Recommended Books:

  1. Clayden, J., Greeves, N. and Warren, S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, (2012).
  2. Coxon, J. M. and Norman, R.O.C., Principles of Organic Synthesis, 3rd ed., Chapman and Hall, UK, (1993).
  3. Brown, W. H., Fotte, C. S., Iverson, B. L. and Anslyn, E. V., Organic Chemistry, 6th ed., Brooks/Cole Learning, (2012).
  4. John, E. M., Organic Chemistry, 8th ed., Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., USA, (2012).
  5. Robert, T. M. and Robert, N. B., Organic Chemistry, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey, (1992).

Course Title: Retrosynthetic Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-462
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives:  Students will acquire knowledge regarding the retrosynthetic reactions and their types including different intermediates involved in organic reactions. Students are expected to learn the underlying concepts and synthetic applications.
Course Contents: Introduction to reterosynthesis, concept of 1,1, 1,2 disconnections, Functional group inter-conversion (FGI). Disconnections of saturated and unsaturated functional groups.  alkenes and alkanes, alcohols and derivatives. Retrosynthesis of difunctionalized compounds. Disconnections of 1,3-dioxygenated compounds. Disconnections of carboxylic acids and simple carbonyl compounds. Disconnections of 1,5-dicarbonyls. Practice and exercise of retrosynthesis as well as synthesis of multifunctional organic compounds.
Recommended Books:

  1. Warren, S.  Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (1992).
  2. Clayden, J., Greeves. N., Warren, S., Worthers,  P. Organic Chemistry, Oxford University Press (2001).
  3. Norman, R.O.C. Coxon, J.M. Principles of Organic Synthesis, 3rd ed., Blackie Academic and Professional, London, (1993).

 

Course Title: Stereochemistry
Course Code: CHEM-463
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives:  Students will acquire knowledge regarding the different stereochemical configuration and stereoisomers. Students are expected to learn the underlying concepts in stereochemistry
Course Contents: Types of stereoisomers, RS and EZ notation, optical activity, stereoselectivity and stereospecificity, conformational analysis, Configuration and conformation of cyclic molecules: Stereochemistry and conformational analysis of cyclohexane systems, six-membered saturated heterocycles. Stereochemistry and conformational effects in ring systems: Chiroptical properties: Optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) and circular dichroism (CD)
Recommended Books:

  1. E.L. Eliel, S.H. Wilen, M.P. Doyle, Basic Organic Stereochemistry, Wiley Interscience, New York (2003)
  2. D. Nasipuri, Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds-Principles and Applications, New Age international Publishers (P) Limited, New Delhi, India (1991).
  3. P.S. Kalsi, Stereochemistry and Mechanism Through Solved Problems, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, India (2001).

Course Title: Natural Products
Course Code: CHEM-464
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about different types of natural products with emphasis on their structure, synthesis, and applications.
Course Contents:
Alkaloids: Isolation methods, structure elucidation and discussion with particular reference to structure and synthesis and biosynthesis of typical alkaloids such as ephedrine, nicotine, atropine, quinine, papaverine and morphine. Terpenoids: Introduction, classification, isolation techniques and discussion with particular reference to structure and synthesis and biosynthesis of typical terpenoids such as citral, α-terpineol, α-pinene, camphor and α-cadinene. Study of cholesterol and steroidal hormones with emphasis on their structure and biosynthesis. Flavonoids: Introduction and classification of flavonoids, general biosynthetic pathway, synthesis of flavone, flavonol and cyanidin.

Recommended Books:

  1. Dewick, P. M., Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach, 3rd ed., Medicinal Natural Products, John-Wiley & Sons, Ltd., (2009).
  2. Sell, C. S., A Fragrant Introduction to Terpenoid Chemistry, The Royal Society of Chemistry, UK, (2003).
  3. De la Rosa, L. A., Parrilla, E. A. and Aguitar, G. A. G., Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry, Nutritional Value and Stability, Wiley-Blackwell, (2009).
  4. Shahidi, F. and Naczk M., Phenolics in Food and Nutraceuticals, CRC Press, (2004).
  5. Oyvind, M. A., and Kenneth, R. M., Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications, CRC, Taylor & Francis, New York, (2010).
  6. Finar, I. L., Organic Chemistry, Vol. 2, Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of Natural Products, 5th ed., Pearson Education Ltd., Delhi, (2008).

Course Title: Electrochemistry
Course Code: CHEM-470
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will develop understanding of the electrochemical processes, principles and
mechanisms involved in aqueous salt solutions as well as colloidal solutions.
Course Contents:
Electrochemistry: Standard electrode potentials, liquid junction potential, electrochemical series, Electrical double layer, interface, a look into the interface, OHP (Outer Helmholttz Plane) and IHP (Inner Helmholttz Plane) , contact adsorption, Gibbs surface excess, potential differences across metal solution interfaces, outer and surface potential differences, galvanic potential difference, electrochemical potential difference, interfacial tension, electro-capillary thermodynamics, Lippmann’s equation, Helmholtz-perrin model, Gouy-Chapmann model, Stern model of electrical double layer, and BDM (Bockris- Devanathan-Muller) model, charge density, differential capacitance, shape of capacitance-charge curve, the capacitance hump. Electrochemical devices, charge transfer processes in the absence and presence of electrical field, the over potential, Butler-Volmer’s equation, the idea of equilibrium exchange current density, the symmetry factor, high field and low field approximation, Tafel’s equation, cyclic voltammetry and its applications, fuel cell, corrosion and its prevention, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
Recommended Books

  1. Hamann, C. H., Hamnett, A. and Veilstich, W., Electrochemistry, 2nd ed., Wiley-VCH Verla Gnb H and Co. KGaA, (2007).
  2. Bard, A. J. and Faulkner, L. R., Electrochemical Method: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed., John-Wiley & Sons, New York, (2001).
  3. Bockris J. O. M., and Reddy, A. K. N., Modern Electrochemistry: Ionics, Vol. I, 2nd ed., Plenum Press, London, (1998).
  4. Gasser, R. P. H., Entropy and Energy Level, Rev. ed., Oxford University Press, New York, (1986).

Course Title: Quantum Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-471
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about quantum chemistry including Schrödinger wave equation and its applications to define the behavior and properties of different systems.

 

Course Contents:
Quantum Chemistry: Operators and their properties, Schrödinger wave equation, particle in a box and a ring, quantum mechanical tunneling, angular momentum, postulates of quantum mechanics, central field problem, approximate methods, perturbation methods and variation principle, many electron systems, treatment of simple harmonic oscillator, diatomic rigid rotor, valence bond and molecular orbital theories, H┼ęckel method for pi-electron approximation in aromatic compounds.
Recommended Books

  1. Fayer, M. D., Elements of Quantum Mechanics, Oxford University Press, London, UK, (2001).
  2. Hayward, D. O., Quantum Mechanics for Chemists, Royal Society Of Chemistry, (2002).
  3. House, J. E., Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, 2nd ed., Elsevier-Academic Press, New York, USA, (2004).
  4.  Kirsten, H. J. W. M., Introduction to Quantum Mechanics: Schrodinger Equation and Path Integral, 1st ed., World Scientific Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., (2006).

Course Title: Statistical Thermodynamics
Course Code: CHEM-472
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about the molecular level treatment of the thermodynamic functions/properties using partition functions and Boltzmann statistics.
Course Contents:
Statistical Thermodynamics: Description of various systems, concepts of states, accessible states and distribution, probability concepts, Maxwell-Boltzmann’s statistics for the systems of independent particles, partition functions, The relationship of partition function to the various thermodynamic functions, transitional, vibrational and rotational partitional functions and equilibrium constant, statistical thermodynamics, applications to equilibrium and chemical kinetics, Bose-Einstein’s and Fermi-Dirac’s statistics.
Recommended Books

  1. Wayatt, P. A. H., The Molecular Basis of Entropy and Chemical Equilibrium, Royal Institute of Chemistry London, UK, (1971).
  2. Seddon, J. M. and Gale, J. D., Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, Royal Society of Chemistry, (2001).
  3. Engel, T., Reid, P., Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics, and Kinetics, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, (2012).
  4. McQuarrie, D. A., Statistical Mechanics, Viva Books Private Ltd. (2008).
  5. Kondepudi D., Introduction to Modern Thermodynamics, John-Wiley & Sons, (2008).

Course Title: Chemical Kinetics
Course Code: CHEM-473
Credit Hours: 3(3-0)
Course Objectives: Understand the concept of rate of change associated with chemical change, recognizing that the rate of change and how it can be measured. Determine rate law of chemical change based on experimental data. Be able to identify the reaction order for a chemical change.
Course Contents:
Reactions in solutions: Diffusion-controlled reactions; applications of transition state theory; solvent effects on polar and ionic reactions; salt effects on reactions. Kinetic isotope effects.
Chain reactions: Features of chain mechanisms; branching chain and oscillating reactions.
Determination of reaction orders: Methods when the infinity reading is unknown; 0th-order or fractional order reactions with respect to a single concentration; rate expression and method of flooding; reactions with complex dependence on a single concentration variable. Product catalyzed reactions: Dual solution in consecutive reactions; series reaction with reversible step; prior-equilibrium and improved steady-state approximation. Concentration-jump methods for opposing reactions. Methods of data analysis: Linear free energy relation (LFER). Hammett co-relation; acid-base catalysis; the Bronsted catalysis law; mechanisms of acid-base catalyzed reactions, reactivity-selectivity principle and iso-selectivity rule; intrinsic barrier and Hammond’s postulate. Marcus equations and its applications.
Recommended Books

  1. Silbey, R. J., Alberty, R. A. and Bawendi, M. G., Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, (2005).
  2. Vertes, A., Nagy, S. and Klencsar, Z., Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 1: Basics of Nuclear Science, 1st ed., Springer, (2003).
  3. Atkins, P. and Paula, J. D., Atkin’s Physical Chemistry, 9th ed., Oxford University Press, (2010).
  4. Somorjai, G. A. and Li, Y., Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, 2nd ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2010).
  5. Laidler. K. J., Chemical Kinetics, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, (1987).
  6. James, A. M., Prichard, F. E., Practical Physical Chemistry, 3rd ed., Longman Group Limited, New York, (1974).

Course Title: Inorganic Reaction Mechanism
Course Code: CHEM-479
Credit Hours: 3(3-0)
Course Objective: Students will acquire know-how and understanding about different mechanisms of inorganic reactions and their applications towards understanding different types of complexes.
Course Contents: Classification of reaction mechanisms; rate laws; steady state approximation; inert and labile complexes; substitution reactions in octahedral complexes and square planar complexes, acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis, steric effects of inert ligands, nucleophilic reactivity, trans-effect, cis-effect, racemization reactions. Mechanism of electron transfer reactions, oxidation reduction reactions of metal ions, outer and inner sphere mechanisms, factors affecting rate of electron transfer reactions, two electrons transfer reactions, complementary or non-complementary electron transfer reactions, oxidative addition, addition of oxygen, hydrogen, HX, organic halides and bimetallic species, reductive elimination reactions.
Recommended Books

  1. Huheey, J. E., Keiter, E. A., Keiter, R. L., Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (1997).
  2. Shriver, D. F., Atkins, P. W., Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd  ed., Oxford University Press, (2001).
  3. Jordan, R. B., Reaction Mechanisms of Inorganic and Organomettalic Systems, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York, (1998).
  4. Atwood, J. D., Inorganic and Organometallic Reaction Mechanisms, 2nd ed., Wiley-VCH, Inc., (1997).
  5. Sharma, S. K., Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms, Discovery Publishing House, (2007).

Course Title: Coordination Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-480
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)

Course Objective: To Know the basic of coordination chemistry, bio-inorganic chemistry and aimed at advanced knowledge in the field of industrial chemistry. To be able to describe the stability of metal complexes by the use of formation constants and to calculate thermodynamic parameters from them. To able to know the bonding and structure of coordination compounds and their applications

Course Contents: Chemistry of d-block elements and coordination complexes: Back ground of coordination chemistry, nomenclature and structure of coordination complexes with coordination number 2-6, chelates and chelate effect, theories of coordination complexes, Werner's theory, valence bond theory (VBT), crystal field theory (CFT) and molecular orbital theory (MOT),Jahn-Teller theorem, magnetic properties, spectral properties, isomerism, stereochemistry, and stability constants of coordination complexes.
Chemistry of f-block elements: i. Lanthanides: General characteristics, occurrence, extraction and general principles of separation, electronic structure and position in the periodic table, lanthanides contraction, oxidation states, spectral and magnetic properties and uses.
ii. Actinides: General characteristics, electronic structure, oxidation state and position in the periodic table, half-life, and decay law.
Recommended Books

  1. Cotton, F. A., Wilkinson, G., Murillo, C. A. and Bochmann, M., Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., Wiley-Interscience, (1999).
  2. Lee, J. D., Concise Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Blackwell Science Ltd., (1996).
  3. Atkins, P. and Jones, L., Chemicals Principles, 5th ed., W. H. Freeman & Company, (2010).
  4. Huheey, J. E., Kieter, E. A. and Kieter, R. L., Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (1997).
  5. Pass, G., Sutcliffe, H., Practical Inorganic Chemistry, Preparations, Reactions and Instrumental Methods, 2nd ed., Chapman and Hall (1974).
  6. Chaudhary, S. U., Ilmi Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, (2013).

Course Title: Inorganic Spectroscopy
Course Code: CHEM-481
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire understanding about various types of transitions (e. g. dd transition, charge transfer) occurring in transition metal compounds and to characterize new compounds by application of electronic spectroscopy.
Course Contents: Electronic states of transition metal complexes, Russel-Sander's coupling scheme, derivation of term symbols for d1-d10 systems, d-d transitions, connecting atomic states and molecular states, correlation diagrams, Tanabe - Sugano diagrams, calculation of 10Dq values, high-spin and low-spin molecules, Jahn-Teller effect, applications of subgroups, selection rules for electronic transitions in molecules, LMCT and MLCT transitions, some examples involving different geometries.
Recommended Books

  1. Yarwood, J., Bazin, P., and Douthwaite, R., Spectroscopic Properties of Inorganic and Organometallic Compounds, Volume 42, The Royal Society of Chemistry, UK, (2011).
  2. Lever, A. B. P., Inorganic Electronic Spectroscopy, 2nd ed., Elsevier, UK, (1984).
  3.  Brisdon, A. K., Inorganic Spectroscopic Methods, Oxford University Press,UK, (1998).
  4.  Solomon, E.I., Inorganic Electronic Structure and Spectroscopy: Methodology, Volume 2, Wiley, New York, (1999).

Course Title: Organometallics
Course Code: CHEM-482
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Contents: Fundamentals of organometallic compounds, types of bonding in organometallics, single, double and triple bonds to carbon (compound types, acyls, alkylidene complexes and alkylidyne complexes), delocalized hydrocarbon systems (alkenes, olefins, allyl and butadienes), alkyne complexes, cyclic π-complexes (five and six membered rings). Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation, dimerization, oligomerization, polymerization, hydroformylation of olefins, catalytic polymerization of acetylenes. Insertion reactions and uses of organometallic compounds in organic synthesis.
Recommended Books

  1. Powell, P., Principles of Organometallics Chemistry, 2nd ed., Springer, (1998).
  2. Yamamoto A., Organotransition Metal Chemistry: Fundamental Concepts and Applications, 1st ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (1986).
  3. Cotton, F. A., Wilkinson, G., Murillo, C. A., Bochmann M., Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., Wiley-Intersceince, New York, (1999).
  4.  Miessler, G. L., Fisher, P. J. and Tar, D, A., Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, (2013).
  5.  Douglas, B., McDaniel, D. and Alexander, J., Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (1994).

Course Title: Heterocyclic And Organometallic Compounds
Course Code: CHEM-465
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about C-Hetero atom bond with emphasis on how it is formed and how it reacts. The importance and applications of compounds containing hetero atom should also be discussed.
Course Contents:
Aromatic Heterocycles: Structure, classification and nomenclature; aromaticity; basicity and acidity of the nitrogen heterocycles; synthesis and reactions, chemistry of furan, pyrrole and thiophene, pyridine. Organometallic Compounds: Principles, organomagnesium, organolithium, organocopper, organocadmium, organomercury and organozinc compounds: their structure and reactivity, methods of preparation and synthetic applications. Chemistry of organic compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus, boron and silicon: synthesis, reactions and application.
Recommended Books:

  1. Claydem, J., Greeves,N. and Warren, S., Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, (2012).
  2. Coxon, J. M. Norman, R. O. C., Principles of Organic Synthesis, 3rd ed., CRC Press, (1993).
  3. Joule, J. A., Mills, K., Heterocyclic Chemistry, 5th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, UK, (2010).
  4. Crabtree, R. H., The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals, 5th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, (2009).

Course Title: Organic Synthesis
Course Code: CHEM-466
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives:  Students will acquire knowledge regarding the retrosynthetic reactions and their types including different intermediates involved in organic reactions. Students are expected to learn the underlying concepts and synthetic applications.
Course Contents: Principles and importance of organic synthesis, introduction to retrosynthesis and disconnection approach, synthesis of aromatic compounds; one and two group carbon C-X disconnections, donor and acceptor synthons, C-C disconnections and 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, 1,5- and 1,6- difunctionalized compounds, synthesis of cyclic compounds (3-6 membered), chemo-, regio- andstereoselectivity.
Synthetic strategies: Functional group protection: hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxylic, sulfanyl, C=C, solid phase synthesis, phase-transfer catalysis.
Recommended Books:

  • S. Warren, Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (1992).
  • J. Clayden, N. Greeves. S. Warren, P. Worthers, Organic Chemistry, Oxford University Press (2001).
  • R.O.C. Norman, J.M. Coxon, Principles of Organic Synthesis, 3rd ed., Blackie Academic and Professional, London, (1993).

Course Title: Medicinal Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-467
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge and learn about the nature, types and properties of drugs and medicines, and the role of an organic chemist in drug designing and drug discovery.
Course Contents: Chemistry of biomolecules; introduction to drugs and drug discovery, sources of therapeutic agents, structure activity relationship (SAR), drug-receptor interaction, drug formulation and its methods, different types of drugs; chemistry and modes of action of some common drugs.
Recommended Books:

  1. Paul, M. D., Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach, 3rd ed., Medicinal Natural Products, John-Wiley & Sons, Ltd, (2009).
  2. Wolff, M. E., Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry, 4th ed., Part III, John-Wiley & Sons, New York, (2006).
  3. Williams, D. A. and Lemke, T. L., Foye’s Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, 6th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York, (2008).
  4. Sriram, D. & Vogeeswari, P. Medicinal Chemistry, 2nd ed., BITS Pilani, Pearson, Publisher: Darling Kindernley, India, (2010).
  5. Carins D., Essential of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3rd ed., Pharmaceutical Press, London, (2008)

Course Title: Pericyclic Reactions basicity
Course Code: CHEM-468
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge and understanding about aromatic reactions as well as pericyclic reactions.
Course Contents: Introduction to pericyclic reactions, Reaction classes: polar vs concerted, Frontier molecular orbitals. Selection rules and orbital symmetry. Diels-Alder Reaction (The [4π- 2π] cycloadditions). FMO interactions, Stereoselectivity and regioselectivity, substituent effects and Lewis acid catalysis. Concerted cycloaddition [n + m] reaction. [2 + 2], (4n + 2), (4n) pairings. Selection rules, forbidden and allowed variants. Electrocyclic reactions Hexatriene- cyclohexadiene, cyclopropyl-allyl, valence tautomerization process. Sigmatropic Rearrangements [1,5] and [1,7] hydrogen shifts, [1,3] sigmatropic shifts, [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangements, Cope and Claisen rearrangements.
Recommended Books:

  1. F.L. Ansari, R. Qureshi, M.L. Qureshi, Electrocyclic Reactions from Fundamentals to Research, Wiley–VCH (1999).
  2. T.H. Lowry, K.H. Richardson, Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Harper & Row Publisher (1987).
  3. F.A. Carey, R.J. Sandberg, Advance Organic Chemistry, Kulver Academic/ Plenum Publisher (2000).

 

Course Title: Name Reactions In Organic Synthesis
Course Code: CHEM-469
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge regarding some name reactions, and different reactions involved in organic reactions. Students are expected to learn the underlying concepts and synthetic applications of name reactions.
Course Contents: Recent modifications and advancements in classical name reactions: Evans Aldol condensation, Mukaiyama Aldol, Blanc reaction, Brook rearrangement, Cory-Kim oxidation, Hetero-Diels-Alder reaction, Milas Hydroxylation reaction, Doebner modification. Sharpless dihydroxylation reactions, CBS reduction, Dess-Martin oxidation, Swern oxidation, Stephen aldehyde synthesis, Fukuyama, Sonogashira, Stille Suzuki, McMurry and Heck coupling, Wittig rearrangement, Mitsunobu reaction, McMurry coupling
Recommended Books:

  1. Kurti, L., Czako, B. Strategic Applications of Name Reactions in Organic Synthesis, Academic Press, New York (2005).
  2. Kurti, L., Czako, B. Name Reactions and Reagents in Organic Synthesis, 2nd ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam (2005).
  3. Mundy, B.P., Ellerd, M.G. Name Reactions and Reagents in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley, New York (2005).

Course Title: Photochemistry
Course Code: CHEM-474
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will learn about the mechanisms of radiation induced chemical changes in molecules, radiation. They will also learn about radioactive decays, and how radioisotopes Students will be able to understand the principles of fluorescence, phosphorescence and other photochemical processes, and their applications.
Course Contents:
Radiation Chemistry: Development and advancement in radiation chemistry, radiation dosimetry, Fricke dosimeter, dosimetry in pulse radiolysis, energy states in radiation chemistry, excited states, fragmentation, pre-dissociation, photochemical decay, ions and electrons, radiolysis of gases, liquids, solids, frozen liquids and ions in radiation chemistry, recent application of radiation chemistry.
Photochemistry: Principles of photochemistry, laws of photochemistry, Einstein’s law of photochemical equivalence, rates of intramolecular processes, chemical reactions and quantum yields with examples, energy transfer in photochemical reaction, quantum yield of emission process radiation and nonradiation process, kinetics and quantum yields of radiative and nonradiative process (fluorescence, phosphorescence, inter-system crossing, internal conversion, quenching) and Stern-Volmer reactions, photosensitized reactions.
Recommended Books:

  1. Choppin, G., Liljenzin, J-O., Rydberg, J., Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, 3rd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, (2002).
  2. Mostafavi, M., Douki, T., Radiation Chemistry: From Basic to Applications in Material and Life Sciences, EDP Science, (2008).
  3. Dunkin, I., Photochemistry, Vol. 36, RSC Publishing, (2007).
  4. Scaglia, B., The Fundamentals: An Understanding of Photochemistry, Biblio Bazaar, (2011).
  5. Konya, J. and Nagy, N. M., Nuclear and Radiochemistry, 1st ed., Elsevier, (2012).

Course Title: Radio and Nuclear Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-475
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about radio and nuclear chemistry, nuclear reactions, fundamintals of radioactivity and its applications.
Course Contents: Fundamentals and applied aspects of radioactivity and nuclear chemistry, types and characteristics of nuclear radiation, structure of nucleus, half-life, nuclear binding energy, and artificial radioactivity, fission and fusion reactions, acceleration of charged particles and applications of radioisotopes.
Recommended Books:

  1. Friedlander, G., Kennedy, J. W., Miller, J. M. and Maciuas, E. S., Nuclear and Radiochemistry, 3rd ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (1981).
  2. Choppin, G. R., Rydberg, J., Liljenzin, J., Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, 3rd ed., Butterworth Heinemann Ltd., (2002).
  3. Arnikar, H. J., Essentials of Nuclear Chemistry, 4th ed., New Age International Pvt. Ltd. Publishers, (1996).
  4. Naqvi, I. I. and Farrukh, M. A., Radiotracers in Chemical Applications, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Germany, (2010).
  5. Loveland, W., Morrissey, D. J. and Seaborg, J. T., Modern Nuclear Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,(2006).

Course Title: Colloid And Surface Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-476
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about the important physical and chemical aspects of nano and colloidal systems and the basics of thermodynamically and kinetically stabilized nanoparticles and colloidal solutions. They will also learn about the surfactant chemistry, characterization methods and applications of nanoparticles and colloidal solutions
Course Contents:
Colloid and Surface Chemistry: Colloidal solutions, catalyst preparation methods, industrial catalysts, emulsion, surfactant, nanoscale chemistry, nanomaterials and their applications, dimensional control in nanostructures, macromolecular surface films, charged films and Langmuir-Blodgett layers, characterization methods and applications. Solid surfaces, surface structures, clean surface structures, gas solid interface, thermodynamics of adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis, kinetic and mechanisms of catalyzed reactions, adsorption at liquid surfaces, chemisorption, physiosorption and dynamics, enzymatic catalysis, organized molecular assemblies, experimental probes for surface and adsorbent structures, scanning probe techniques, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), electron spectroscopy, and other surface analysis techniques.
Recommended Books:

  1. Hunter, R. J., Introduction to Modern Colloid Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, (1994).
  2. Poole, C. P. and Owens, F. J., Introduction to Nanotechnology, 1st ed., Wiley-Interscience, (2003).
  3. Klabunde, K. J., Nanoscale Materials in Chemistry, John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2003).
  4. Kolunsiki, K. W., Surface Science: Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience, 3rd ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Ltd., (2012).
  5. Adamson, A. W. and Gast, A. P., Physical chemistry of Surfaces, 6th ed., Wiley-Interscience, (1997).
  6. Atkins, P. and Paula, J. D., Atkin’s Physical Chemistry, 8th ed., Oxford University Press, (2006).
  7. Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry, 6th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, (2004).

Course Title: Reaction Dynamics
Course Code: CHEM-477
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge and learning about reaction dynamics and kinetic theories. They will also know about the factors which can influence the rates of reactions under different reaction conditions.
Course Contents:
Reaction Dynamics: Correlation between physical properties and concentration, kinetics of the complex reactions, reversible, parallel, consecutive bimolecular reactions, theory of absolute reaction rate, Lindemann’s theory of unimolecular reactions, bimolecular collision theory, transition state theory, comparison of collision and absolute reaction theories, potential energy surfaces, thermodynamic formulation of reaction rates, calculation of entropy and enthalpy changes, thermal decomposition of nitrogen pentoxide.
Reactions in solutions: Influence of ionic strength on the reaction rate, effect of dielectric constant of the medium on the rate of the reaction, single sphere activated complex model, double sphere activated complex model, complex reactions, chain reactions, single chain carrier with second order breaking, one chain carrier with first order breaking, two chain carrier with second order breaking, experimental techniques for fast reactions.
Recommended Books:

  1. Espenson, J. H., Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, London (2002).
  2. Connors, K. A., Chemical Kinetics: The Study of Reaction Rates in Solution, VCH Publishers, Inc., (1990).
  3. Silbey, R. J., Alberty, R. A. and Bawendi, M. G., Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, (2005).
  4. Atkins, P. and Paula, J. D., Atkin’s Physical Chemistry, 9th ed., Oxford University Press, (2010).
  5. Houston, P. L., Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Dynamics, Dover Publications, (2006).
  6. Levine, R., Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, (2005).

Course Title: Basic Solution Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-478
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Contents:
Solutions: Classification; their importance in chemistry, industry and life science. Interactions in solutions: Concept of solute and solvent; multicomponent systems; preferential solvation. Solvents: Their characterization; microscopic structure of solvent and solvates; pair distribution function (PDF) and its determination using different techniques (spectroscopy and diffraction). Molecular dynamics and microscopic structure; different techniques of molecular dynamical calculations. Theories and laws related to solutions. Macroscopic properties of solutions: Transport properties; thermodynamics of solution; equilibria in solutions.
Recommended Books:

  1. McQuarrie, D. A. and Simon, J. D., Physical Chemistry – A Molecular Approach,1st ed., University Science Books,(1997).
  2. Atkins,P. and Paula,J.D., Atkin’s Physical Chemistry, 9th ed., Oxford University Press, (2010).
  3. Shoemaker, D., Experiments in Physical Chemistry, 8th ed., McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, (2003).
  4. Silbey, R., Alberty, R. and Bawendi, M., Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., (2005).
  5. James, A. M., Prichard, F. E., Practical Physical Chemistry, 3rd ed., Longman Group Limited, New York, (1974).
  6. Chaudhary, S. U., Ilmi Textbook of Physical Chemistry, 2nd ed., Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore, (2013).
  7. Atkins, P., Jones, L., Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight, 5th ed., W. H. Freeman, New York, (2010).
  8. Linder, B., Elementary Physical Chemistry, World Scientific Publishing Co. Ptv. Ltd., (2011).
  9. Davis, W. M., Dykstra, C. E., Physical Chemistry: A Modern Introduction, 2nd ed., CRC Press, (2011).

Course Title: Separations Chemistry
Course Code: CHEM-483
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about the principles and instrumentation of advanced chromatographic techniques namely GLC, HPLC and capillary electrophoresis along with their applications in different fields such as food, pharmaceuticals, petroleum, environmental and other industrial sectors.
Course Contents: Classifications of chromatographic techniques, the chromatographic processes, rate theory of chromatography, Van-Deemter equation and its significance in evaluating column efficiency.
Gas-Liquid Chromatography: General principle, sample preparation/derivatization, separation process, and instrumental aspects and their applications.
HPLC: General principle, sample preparation, separation process (normal phase and reverse phase separation), instrumentation, method development, and applications.
Capillary electrophoresis: Theory and principle of CE, mobility, electro-osmotic flow separation by CE, instrumentation, modes of operation, applications.
Recommended Books:

  1. Skoog, D. A., West, P. M., Holler, F. J. and Crouch, S. R., Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 9th ed., Cengage Learning, (2013).
  2. Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry, 6th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, New York, (2004).
  3. Kealey, D. and Haines, P. J., BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry, 1st ed., Taylor & Francis, (2002).
  4. Sharma, B.K. Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, 24th ed., Goel Publishing House, Meerut, India, (2005).
  5. Grob, R. L., Eugene, F. Barry, Modern Practice of Gas Chromatography, 4th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, USA, (2004).
  6. Kellner, R., Mermet, J-. M., Otto, M., Valcarcel, M. and Widmer, H. M., Analytical Chemistry: A Modern Approach to Analytical Science, Wiley- VCH, (2004).
  7. Meyer, V. R., Practical High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, 5th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Ltd., (2010).
  8. Lindsay, S., High Performance Liquid Chromatography, 2nd ed., John- Wiley & Sons, Ltd., (1992).
  9. Braitwaite, A. and Smith, F. J., Chromatographic Methods, 5th ed., KluwerAcademic Publishers, (1999).
  10. Miller, J. M., Chromatography: Concepts and Contrasts, 2nd ed., John- Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2005).
  11. Camilleri, P., Capillary Electrophoresis: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed., CRC Press, (1998).

Course Title: Atomic Spectroscopy
Course Code: CHEM-484
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about theoretical aspects and instrumentation of different atomic spectroscopic methods as well as learn about the applications of these techniques in the field of chemical sciences.
Course Contents:
Flame Photometry: Origin and classification of atomic spectroscopic methods, origin of atomic spectrum, position of the signal, intensity of the signal, spectral line width, principle of flame photometry, fate of the sample in the flame, flame and its characteristics, instrumentation for flame photometry, merits and limitations.
Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry: Origin of atomic fluorescence, types of atomic fluorescence transitions, the principle of atomic fluorescence spectrometry, instrumentation for atomic fluorescence spectrometry, applications of atomic fluorescence spectrometry, interferences, merits, and limitations.
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: Principle of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, instrumentation for atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Instrumentation, handling background absorption, interferences in atomic absorption spectrophotometry, sample handling in atomic absorption spectrophotometry, preparation of the sample, applications of atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry: Introduction, the principle of atomic emission spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry using plasma sources, plasma and its characteristics, inductively coupled plasma, direct current plasma, microwave induced plasma, choice of argon as plasma gas, instrumentation for ICP-MS.
Recommended Books:

  • Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry, 6th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, New York, (2006).
  • Harris, D. C., Quantitative Chemical Analysis 8th ed., W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, (2009).
  • Kealey, D. and Haines, P. J., BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry, Bios Scientific Publishers Limited, Oxford, UK, (2002).
  • Sharma, B. K., Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, 24th ed., Goel Publishing House, Meerut, India, (2005).
  • Skoog, D. A., and West, D. M., Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 8th ed., Hot Reinehart Inc., London, (2008).
  • Fritz, Schulz, Electroanalytical Methods: Guide to Experiments and Applications. 2nd revised, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Germany, (2010).
  • Monk, P.M.S, Fundamentals of Electroanalytical Chemistry, John-Wiley & Sons Ltd, England, (2001).

Course Title: Electroanalytical Techniques
Course Code: CHEM-485
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire sound knowledge regarding the theoretical, instrumental as well as application-related aspects of different electroanalytical techniques
Course Contents:
Potentiometry: Electrode potential, Nernst equation and its use for measuring half-cell potential, different kinds of electrodes including glass and calomel electrodes working of the potentiometer and its applications including pH measurements, Ion-selective electrode systems, Ion exchange membrane electrode, solid-state membrane electrodes, and bio-membrane electrodes, Potentiometric titrations.
Coulometry and Electrogravimetry: Basic electrochemistry, principle, instrumentation of coulometry, principle, instrumentation of electrogravimetry, consequences of electrogravimetry, Ohmic drop, activation overpotential, concentration and gas polarization, basic difference and merits/demerits of coulometry and electrogravimetry.
Voltammetry and Polarography: Basic principle, voltammogram, polarizable and non-polarizable electrodes, cyclic voltammetry, anodic stripping voltammetry. voltammetric equation, the basic concept of polarography and interpretation of various polarographic curves, measurement of decomposition potential, diffusion and limiting currents, derivation of Ilkovic equation, logarithmic analysis of polarographic wave, advantages and limitation of dropping mercury electrode.
Recommended Books:

  1. Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry, 6th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, New York, (2006).
  2. Harris, D. C., Quantitative Chemical Analysis 8th ed.,W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, (2009).
  3. Kealey, D. and Haines , P. J., BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry, Bios Scientific Publishers Limited, Oxford, UK, (2002).
  4. Sharma, B. K., Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, 24th ed., Goel Publishing House, Meerut, India, (2005).
  5. Skoog, D. A. and West, D. M., Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 8th ed., Hot Reinehart Inc., London, (2008).
  6. Fritz, Schulz, Electranalytical Methods: Guide to Experiments and Applications. 2nd revised, Springer Verlag Berlin, Germany, (2010).
  7. Monk, P.M.S, Fundamentals of Electroanalytical Chemistry, John-Wiley & Sons Ltd, England, (2001).

Course Title: Food and Drug Analysis
Course Code: CHEM-486
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about sample preparation, derivations and analysis of different types of foods, pharmaceuticals and forensics.
Course Contents:
Food Products: Introduction to food analysis, sampling of food, general methods of analysis. Analysis of milk, butter, wheat flour, meat, beverages, tea, coca, honey, and soft drinks.
Pharmaceuticals: Classification of drugs, tests for analysis of different pharmaceuticals, introduction to US and British pharmacopeia.
Forensics: History and scope of Forensic Science, Forensic Ethics, Forensic Toxicology. Classification and analysis of narcotics & dangerous drugs, examination of crime scene evidences, fingerprinting, skeletal material to provide a scientific opinion for legal.
Recommended Books:

  1. Skoog, D. A., West, D. M. and Holler, F. J., Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 7th ed., Saunders College Publishing, (1995).
  2. Christian, G. D., Analytical Chemistry, John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., 6th ed., (2004).
  3. Eckert, W. G., Introduction to Forensic Science, 2nd ed., CRC Press, (1997).
  4. Nielsen, S. S., Food Analysis, 4th ed., Springer, (2010).
  5. Thomas, G., Medicinal Chemistry: An Introduction, 2nd ed., John-Wiley & Sons, (2007).
  6. Kobilinsky, L. F., Forensic Chemistry Handbook, 1st ed., John-Wiley & Sons, USA, (2012).
  7. Watson, D. G., Pharmaceutical Analysis: A Textbook for Pharmacy Students and Pharmaceutical Chemists, Elsevier, (2012).
  8. Stuart H. Barbara, “Forensic Analytical Techniques”, 1st ed., John-Wiley & Sons, (2013).
  9. Jackson, A. R. W. and Jackson, J. M., Forensic Science, 2nd ed., Pearson Education, (2008).

Course Title: π- Acceptor Ligands and Inorganic Polymers
Course Code: CHEM-487
Credit Hours: 3(3-0)
Course Objective: Student will acquire sound knowledge about π--acceptor ligands and different types of inorganic polymers.
Course Contents:
π-Acceptor Ligands: Introduction to π-acceptor ligands, effective atomic number (EAN) rule and chemistry of metal carbonyls, nitrosyls, and isocyanides, structure elucidation based on spectroscopic evidences, applications and uses of metal carbonyls and their derivatives for catalysis and organic synthesis.
Inorganic Polymers: Introduction to homoatomic and heteroatomic inorganic polymers, chains and cages of boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, synthesis and applications, polyionic species, isopoly and heteropoly, anions of transition metals, silicates, borates, condensed phosphates, zeolites.
Recommended Books:

  1. Brady, J. E., and Sense, F., Chemistry-The Study of Matter and Its Changes, 5th ed., Wiley Plus, (2009).
  2. Miessler, G. L.,Tarr, D. A., Inorganic Chemistry, 4th ed., Prentice-Hall International, New Jersey, USA, (2010).
  3. Douglas, B., McDanial, D., Alexander, J., Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., John-Wiley & Sons, New York, (1994).
  4. Huheey, J. E., Keiter, E. A., Keiter, R. L., Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (1997).
  5. Shriver, D. F., Atkins, P. W., Langford, C. H., Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, (1994).
  6. Cotton, F. A., Wilkinson, G., Murillo, C. A. and Bochmann, M., Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., Wiley-Interscience,  (1999).
  7. Atkins, P. and Jones, L., Chemicals Principles: The Quest for Insight, 5th ed., W. H. Freeman, (2010).
  8. Mandelkern, L., An Introduction to Macromolecules, 2nd ed., Springer Verlag, New York, (1983).
  9. Ravve, A., Principles of Polymer Chemistry, 2nd ed., Plenum Publishers, (2000).
  10. Crabtree, R. H., The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals, 5th ed., John-Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, (2011).
  11. Yamamoto, A., Organotransition Metal Chemistry, Prentice Hall, (1992).
  12. Billmeyer, F. W., A Text Book of Polymer Science, 3rd, John-Wiley and Sons, (2003).
  13. Malmcoim, P.S., Polymer Chemistry: An Introduction, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, (2005).

Course Title: Symmetry and Magnetochemsitry
Course Code: CHEM-488
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will acquire knowledge about magnetic properties from chemistry point of view and group theory.
Course Contents: Symmetry and Group Theory: Symmetry and group theory, point groups, multiplication tables, group representation and development of character tables. Introduction to the interpretation of spectra and structure elucidation.
Magnetochemistry: Theory of magnetism, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferro, ferri and antiferromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic moments, Faraday’s & Gouy’s methods, effect of temperature on magnetic properties of complexes. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, magnetic moment of lanthanides.
Recommended Books:

  1. Douglas, B., McDaniel, D., Alexander, J., Concepts and Models of  Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., John-Wiley & Sons Inc., (1997).
  2. Huheey, J. E, Keiter, E. A., Keiter, R. L., Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity”, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, (1997).
  3. Mackay, K. M., Mackay, R. A. and Henderson, W., Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., CRC Press, (2002).
  4. Miessler, G. L., Fisher, P. J. and Tar, D, A., Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, (2013).
  5. Purcell, K. F., Kotz, J. C., An Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry, W. B. Saunders, Company Holt-Saunders, International ed., (1980).
  6. Cotton, F. A., Wilkinson, G., Murillo, C. A., Bochmann, M., Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., Wiley-Intersceince, New York, (1999).
  7. Jolly, W. L., Modern Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Company, (1991).
  8. Carter, R. L., Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory, 1st ed., John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, (1997).
  9. Orchin, M., Jaffe, H. H., Symmetry, Orbitals, and Spectra, John-Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, (1971).
  10. McWeeny, R., Symmetry: An Introduction to Group Theory and its Applications, Dover Publications, Inc., (2002).
  11. Vincet, A., Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory, 2nd ed., John Wiley & sons Ltd, (2001).

Course Title: Environmental Chemical Analysis
Course Code: CHEM-489 
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will know about emergining contaminants in the environment and methods used for their separation from water, soil and air. They will further learn about various advanced methods used for the removal of these pollutants from environmental bodies. 
Course Contents: Evaluation of environmental quality. Environmental quality standards. Contamination and pollution.  Elements and speciation. Analysis and separation of emerging contaminants in the environments. Chemical transformations, photo-degradation. Methods such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering, individually or in combination, and how these techniques can be used to solve various environmental chemical problems. Pesticides analysis in food and agricultural samples.
Recommended Books:

  1. S. Mitra, P. PatnaikB.B. Kebbekus, Environmental Chemical Analysis, 2nd ed., CRC Press, (2018)
  2. R. Sighi and V. Singh, Green Chemistry for Environmental Remediation, 1st ed., John-Willey & Sons
  3. C. Baird and M. Cann, Environmental Chemistry, 5th ed., W. H. Freeman & Company, (2012)
  4. F.W. Fifield and P.J. Haines, Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 2nd ed. (2013).

 
Course Title: Chemistry of Functional Materials
Course Code: CHEM-492
Credit Hours: 3(3+0)
Course Objectives: Students will learn how to correlate between functional properties and crystal structure, chemical bonds, and electronic structures, concepts and principles of electric polarization in materials, such and ferro-electrics and dielectrics. Further, the coupling between magnetism and electric polarization will be explained in the example multiferroics.
Course Contents: Introduction to Functional Materials and Their Applications. Synthesis, assembly and properties of functional materials. The applications of functional materials in fields such as - biomaterials and in nanomedicine; or energy production, storage and fuel cell technologies; environmental remediation and clean-up technologies. Electrical Conduction Behavior (Electronic bands structures, Charge transport, Semiconductor devices) Dielectric Behavior   (Dielectrics, piezo and ferroelectrics: theory, examples of materials and applications) Electromagnetic Behavior. Optical Behavior (Optical active materials: theory, examples of materials and applications) Magnetic Behavior (theory, examples of materials and applications)
Recommended Books:

  1. D. L. Chung, Functional Materials: Electrical, Dielectric, Electromagnetic, Optical and Magnetic Applications, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd (2010)
  2. S. Banerjee, Functional Materials: Preparation, Processing and Applications, Elsevier Science (2011)

Course Title: Research Project-I
Course Code: CHM-491
Credit Hours: 3(0+3)
Course Contents: Experiments based on available spectroscopic techniques may be arranged, both of qualitative and quantitative nature. One- and two-step synthesis using available starting materials are recommended.
The resolution of cis-dichlorobis (ethylenediamine) chromium (III) chloride into its optical isomers.
The preparation and resolution of the tris (ethylenediamine) cobalt (III) ion into its optical antipodes.
Estimation of Al (III) and Fe (III) using 8-hydroxyquinoloine.
Estimation of Ni (II) in the presence of Cu (II).
Determination of chloride in the presence of iodide and evaluation of Ksp of AgI and AgCl.
Determination of dissociation constant Ka for acetic acid.
Determination of Ni+2 ions by EDTA (back titration).
Determination of Ca+2 and Zn+2 ions by EDTA (masking titration).
Titration of strong acid and weak acid with a strong base.
Precipitation titration involving AgNO3 and KCl.
Determination of partial molar properties.
Determination of free energy changes, standard free energies.
Verification of Kohlrausch’s law.
Study of temperature dependence of electrode potentials.
Determination of heat of solution, ionic reactions and other experiments from thermochemistry.
Determination of molecular weight of a polymer by viscosity method.
Precipitation value of electrolytes. Measurement of IR spectra of simple compounds and their interpretation.
Measurement of cyclic voltammogram of an organic compound and its interpretation.
Determination of dipole moment of an organic liquid.
Determination of percentage composition of KMnO4-K2Cr2O7 in given solution by spectrometry.
Evaluation of pKa value of an indicator by spectrometric method.
Synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles and their characterization using IR and XRD techniques.

Course Title: Research Project-II
Course Code: CHEM-492
Credit Hours: 3(0+3)
Course Contents: Experiments based on isolation of natural products from plants are recommended. These may include isolation of caffeine from tea, isolation of nicotine from tobacco, isolation of carvone from mint, isolation of limonene from orange peels, isolation of piperine from black pepper, etc. Experiments involving multi-step synthesis may also be included, such as the synthesis of methyl orange. Literature survey for laboratory work is to be carried out during the course of studies.
Use of organic reagents for the estimation of various metal ions;
Synthesis of ferrocene and acetyl ferrocene
Synthesis of triaryl phosphines
Reduction of anisole by lithium-Birch-reduction.
Preparation of ferrocenyl oximes
Preparation of zinc-porphyrin complexes, Synthesis of zinc-phthalocyanine
Synthesis of coordination polymers of transition metals.
Sugar analysis and inversion studies by polarimetry.
Study of isotherms and experiments of surface chemistry.
Kinetics of fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution.
Study of the effect of pH on the rate constant of the reaction between iodide and persulfate ions.
Study of the salt effect on the rate constant of the reaction between similar charges of ions.
Kinetics of autocatalytic reaction between permanganate and oxalate ions.
Determination of energy of activation of the reaction between similar charged ions.
Kinetics of the reaction between methyl orange and peroxodisulfate ions in the presence of bromide ions.
Stoichiometry of a complex in solution by Job’s method using spectroscopic methods.

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