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Researchers working in the lab must follow the following rules and precautionary measures:
SAFETY AND LABORATORY RULES:
Accidents in a Research laboratory usually result from improper working with chemicals, glassware and acids.
Learn and observe the safety and laboratory rules listed below.
1. Notify your instructor at once in case of any accident or personal injury to you, even if apparently minor.
If your instructor is temporarily absent, notify the Supervisor in the Department. If you are asked to go see the nurse, you must go.
2. Locate safety equipment.
During the first laboratory period familiarize yourself with the location and operation of the safety features of the laboratory.
3. be careful when using glassware.
Cuts and burns are the most common injuries that occur in Chemistry laboratories. Cuts can be prevented by following a few simple rules:
a) When inserting glass tubing into rubber stoppers, use the following procedure:
1) Make sure the glass tubing ends are fire polished.
2) Always use glycerin or soapy water as a lubricant both on the tubing and in the hole.
3) Protect your hand by wrapping the glass tubing with a towel.
4) Hold the glass near the end to be inserted, thus minimizing the torque, and insert using a Twisting motion. Never hold the glass at a bend.
b) Fire polish all sharp edges of broken glass.
c) Discard cracked or broken glassware in the designated container.
d) Never heat heavy glassware such as graduated cylinders, suction flasks, or reagent bottles since they might shatter.
4. Wash chemicals from skin.
a) If you receive a chemical burn from a caustic material, i.e. acid or base, immediately wash the burned area with large quantities of water. Ask another student to summon the lab Instructor.
b) Wash your hands and face quickly and thoroughly whenever they come into contact with a chemical.
c) Always wash your hands, before leaving the lab since toxic chemicals may be transferred to the mouth at a later time.
d) Chemicals spilled over a large part of the body require immediate action. Remove all contaminated clothing and use the safety shower, flooding the burned area. Do not use salves, creams, lotions, etc. Get medical attention.
5. be careful with flames.
A lighted gas burner can be a major fire hazard.
a) General Precautions:
1) The burner should be burning only for the period of time in which it is actually utilized.
2) Before lighting your burner carefully position it on the desk away from flammable materials, overhanging reagent shelves, flammable reagents such as acetone, toluene, and alcohol on neighboring desks.
3) Be careful not to extend your arm over a burner while reaching for something.
b) Personal Precautions:
1) Keep long hair tied back so that it cannot fall forward into a flame.
2) Keep beards away from flames.
6. Never point a test tube toward a laboratory neighbor or yourself when:
a) Heating a test tube over a burner.
b) Carrying out a reaction in a test tube.
7. Wear suitable clothing.
Wear clothing that will protect you against spilled chemicals or flaming liquids. Hard-soled, covered footwear must be worn in the laboratory at all times--no sandals allowed.
8. Assume that a particular reagent is hazardous unless you know for sure it is not.
a) Never taste a chemical unless specifically directed to do so.
b) If you are instructed to smell a chemical, point the vessel away from your face and carefully fan the vapors toward your face with your hand and sniff gently.
c) Use Material Safety Data Sheets.
9. Never fill a pipet by using your mouth.
10. Assemble safe apparatus.
Always assemble an apparatus as outlined in your instructions. Makeshift equipment and poor apparatus assemblies are the first steps to an accident.
11. Dilute concentrated acids and bases by pouring the reagent into water (room temperature or Lower) while stirring constantly.
Never pour water into concentrated acids; the heat of solution will cause the water to boil and the acid to splatter.
12. Use the fume hoods.
Any experiment involving the use of or production of poisonous or irritating gases must be performed in a hood.
13. Read the label.
Read the label carefully, read it twice, before taking anything from a bottle. Many chemicals have similar names, such as sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite. Using the wrong reagent can spoil an experiment or can cause a serious accident.
14. Eating, drinking, and smoking are strictly prohibited in the laboratory
At all times because of the possibility of chemicals getting into the mouth or lungs through contamination. The chief hazard with smoking is fire.
15. Avoid rubbing your eyes unless you know your hands are clean.
16. Do not put hot objects on the desktops.
Place hot objects on a wire gauze or ceramic pad.
17. Never throw lighted matches into a sink.
They may ignite a discarded flammable liquid.
18. Perform only authorized experiments.
Unless authorized to do so by the instructor, a student will be subject to immediate and permanent expulsion from the lab if:
a) Attempting to conduct unauthorized experiments.
b) Attempting variations of the experiment in the lab manual
Performing unauthorized experiments are dangerous. Students lack the experience to recognize
Whether or not the chemicals and techniques are safe.
19. Keep your workspace orderly.
a) Place tall items, such as graduated cylinders, toward the back of the workbench so they will not be overturned by reaching over them.
b) Clean up all chemical spills, scraps of paper, and glassware immediately.
c) Keep drawers closed while working and the aisles free of any obstructions, including chairs.
d) Never place coats, books, and other belongings on the laboratory bench where they will interfere with the experiment and are likely to be damaged.
20. Clean up your workspace at the end of each laboratory period.
a) Wash and wipe off your desktop.
b) Be sure gas and water are turned off.
c) Return all special equipment to the stockroom.
d) Put everything back into your locker drawer and lock.
21. Avoid using excessive amounts of reagent.
a) Never use more than called for in the experiment.
b) Do not return any excess chemical to the reagent bottle; share it with another student or dispose of it.
c) If you are uncertain how to dispose of an excess of a specific chemical, consult your instructor.
22. Discard waste chemicals as follows:
Waste Chemical Proper Disposal
a) Non-flammable water-soluble liquids Liquid Waste bottle
b) Chemical solids, contaminated paper, and Solid Waste bottle contaminated broken glassware
c) Paper products Trash can
d) Organic solvents Organic Waste bottle (Do not put acids in the organic waste bottle.)
e) Glass tubing waste or broken glass Broken Glass wooden box
23. Always add a reagent slowly--never "dump" in. Two reasons:
a) Some reactions give off a lot of heat, and unless adding slowly, can become too vigorous and out of control.
b) If you make a mistake and choose the wrong chemical, adding slowly decreases the possibility of causing a serious accident. 24. Treat chemical spills as follows:
a) Alert your lab neighbors and your instructor.
b) Clean up the spill as directed by your lab instructor.
25. Never fill a vessel more than about 70% capacity if you plan to heat it
Unless specifically told to do so.
26. Never work in the lab without the instructor present.
This includes setting up equipment.
27. Maintain a wholesome, businesslike attitude in the lab.
Horseplay and other acts of carelessness are prohibited.
38. be aware of your lab neighbors' activities; you may be a victim of their mistakes.
If you observe improper techniques or unsafe practices:
a) Advise your neighbor.
b) Advise your instructor if necessary.
29. Observe all specific precautions and modifications mentioned in each experiment.
30. Do not remove any chemicals from the lab.
31. For reasons of safety, you may not be allowed to attend lab if you are late.